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Beneficios del buen dormir y el peso corporal - Comuna Mujer
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Beneficios del buen dormir y el peso corporal

Beneficios del buen dormir y el peso corporal

La falta de sueño, conlleva un aumento de todas las hormonas que incitan al apetito y que precisamente, provocan la ingesta de alimentos ricos en grasa y azúcares; lo que repercute en un incremento del peso corporal. Sin embargo, una sola hora de diferencia en la duración del sueño por sí sola, es capaz de poner en marcha mecanismos que ayudan a mantener el peso, según han explicado expertos.

Dormir al menos ocho horas diarias, es una más de las actitudes que deben adoptarse para intentar conseguir y mantener un peso adecuado, explican expertos de la Sociedad Española de Endocrinología y Nutrición (SEEN) y la Sociedad Española para el Estudio de la Obesidad (SEEDO).

Al parecer, esto es consecuencia de dos hormonas (leptina y ghrelina), relacionadas con el apetito y que se modifican con las horas de sueño. “La leptina, inhibe la sensación de hambre y la ghrelina, estimula el apetito”, explica el presidente de la SEEN, el doctor Javier Salvador. Así, a menor tiempo de sueño, las concentraciones de leptina disminuyen y aumentan las de ghrelina; o lo que es igual: cuanto menos dormimos, más queremos comer.

En la última década, se ha puesto en evidencia la existencia de una estrecha correlación entre dormir pocas horas y un mayor riesgo de ser obeso. Es por ello que para prevenir el desarrollo de obesidad en nuestra sociedad, así como para intentar que las personas obesas pierdan peso, junto a los obligados cambios del estilo de vida (alimentación y ejercicio), es necesario dormir al menos siete u ocho horas diarias.

En concreto, el coordinador del Grupo de Trabajo de Obesidad de la SEEN, el doctor Albert Lecube, desaconseja dormir menos de siete horas y afirma que se ha comprobado, que aumentar las horas de sueño de seis o menos hasta siete u ocho horas durante un periodo de seis años, se acompaña de un menor aumento del índice de masa corporal y de una menor acumulación de grasa corporal.

Asimismo, destacan la estrecha relación entre las horas de sueño y la presencia de obesidad en niños. Se ha constatado que los niños obesos, duermen menos que aquellos niños que tienen peso normal, explica el presidente de la SEEDO, profesor Felipe Casanueva.

Actualmente, se considera que en los niños, dormir cinco o menos horas, casi duplica el riesgo de ser un adulto obeso. De hecho, existen estudios que apuntan que niños que más duermen durante sus primeros once años de vida, tienen un menor riesgo de ser obesos en la edad adulta (independientemente del sexo, las horas que pasan viendo la televisión, la situación socioeconómica de los padres o la actividad física que realicen).

Con relación a los adultos, los expertos señalan que ocurre lo mismo. En gente mayor, se ha observado que tanto el índice de masa corporal como el perímetro de cintura, es significativamente mayor entre aquellos que duermen menos de cinco horas. En concreto, dormir menos se asocia con un aumento del perímetro de la cintura de 6.7 centímetros para los hombres y de 5.4 centímetros para las mujeres.

Junto a las horas de sueño, Casanueva añade que también es fundamental tener una buena calidad del sueño y advierte que en España, se sufre una de las mayores contaminaciones lumínicas y de ruido del mundo, lo que también incide en el aumento del peso.

Por otra parte, recuerda que la relación entre sueño y obesidad es bidireccional, de forma que la obesidad es el principal factor de riesgo para desarrollar alteraciones respiratorias y apneas durante el sueño, y así, producir una mayor somnolencia diurna. Además, en los niños, esto supone un aumento del riesgo de hipertensión y problemas cardiovasculares.

Asimismo, dormir poco se asocia con un riesgo dos veces mayor de desarrollar diabetes, así como con una mayor prevalencia de hipertensión arterial. Sin embargo, el principal factor de riesgo, se asocia con la hipersomnia diurna y la mayor posibilidad de sufrir accidentes.

En la actualidad, agregan desde la SEEN y SEEDO, el 23% de la población española de más de 18 años, tiene obesidad (enfermedad que está presente en el 35% de los mayores de 65 años). Junto a la disminución de la calidad de vida que esto implica, aumenta también el riesgo de presentar otras enfermedades graves, como la diabetes mellitus tipo 2, la hipertensión arterial, el síndrome de apneas-hipoapneas del sueño y diversos tipos de neoplasias, como cáncer de colon.

Se trata de un problema de salud pública de primer orden, que se asocia a un gran costo sociosanitario; ya que, como hemos visto anteriormente, la falta de sueño, favorece la aparición de muchas enfermedades.



Nutrición y Salud Cuido tu Peso

Dirección: Av. La Dehesa 1201  Of. 510, Torre Norte
Lo Barnechea, Santiago, Chile
Teléfono: (2) 321 2001
Contacto: info@cuidotupeso.cl 
Web: http://www.cuidotupeso.cl

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